An alphabet tarnished
The futhark is best known as the writing of marauding barbarians. Then the Nazis claimed it as their own.
F or a thousand years, runic alphabets were used to write several Germanic languages. The elder futhark has 24 letters, the younger futhark 16, and the medieval kind about 25.
There were others, ranging from the minimalist staveless runes to mysterious tied ligatures. This piece shows the three major styles.
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