Lower-case letters

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   Lower case
   The a-family
   The b-family
   The o-family
   The x-family
   The l-family
   The A-group
   The E-group
   The O-group


Numerals are the same height as the capitals.

Some of their shapes neither match the shapes of the lower case letters nor the capitals. We got them from the Arabs, who got them in India.

The zero is narrower than the capital letter O. They are both written the same way: the left side comes first, and starts at the top.

Begin the numeral 1 with a short entry stroke. And keep it at an angle so it won’t be mistaken for the horizontal stroke of the numeral 7.

The numeral 2 starts with a curve. When you’ve made half a circle, make a diagonal down to the baseline. And finish with a straight line to the right. (The lower half looks much like the letter z.)

Begin the numeral 3 with a curve, just like the numeral 2. It should be a little more than a half-circle. And then make another, bigger than the first. Keep the gap on the left side open, to make sure the numeral 3 isn’t mistaken for the numeral 8.

The numeral 4 starts with a stem. Then lift the pen, go back to the top, and make a diagonal to the left. When you’re about two-thirds of the way down to the baseline, stop and make a sharp turn to the right. Finally, make a horizontal line across the stem and a little beyond it.

Begin the numeral 5 with a short stem. Less than half-way down, stop and make a sharp turn to the right. Make a curve to the right, a little more than a half-circle, just as in the numeral 3. Lift the pen, go back to the top, and finish with a line to the right. (Don’t write it any other way. The pen lift is important. It makes the numeral 5 distinctive. It can otherwise be mistaken for the letter S, a numeral three, and a terrible numeral 8.)

The numeral 6 starts at the top and to the right. You make the left side first, as in the zero. Go up on the right side, and make a curve that ends at the middle of the left side.

The numeral 7 is simple. It starts with a line to the right, followed by a diagonal down to the baseline. It is similar to the capital letter Z without the last line to the right. Remember to keep the top line horizontal, and keep the diagonal slanted enough. Otherwise, the numeral 7 can be mistaken for the numeral 1.

Begin the numeral 8 as a letter S. Give it a curve to the left, a diagonal to the right, and another curve to the left. Keep going to the point where you started: curve, diagonal, and a final curve to the left.

The bottom half should be slightly bigger than the top. And don’t allow other ways of writing the numeral 8. One circle on top of another may be easier. A closed numeral 3 may be an amusing variant. But in fast writing, they get misunderstood.

The numeral 9 is not the numeral 6, standing on its head. You begin at the top, and make a small circle. (Left side first, just like zero.) Then you stop, and make a curve to the baseline.