Home page

   Lower case
   The a-family
   The b-family
   The o-family
   The x-family
   The l-family
   The A-group
   The E-group
   The O-group


The Latin alphabet began with capitals only. There were no lower-case letters. It was based on simple geometric forms. Even today, the letters A and V are triangular. The letters O and Q owe much to a circle.

These letters are not suited to joined writing. And a page written in capitals is harder to read than a page written in lower case letters. We use them to begin sentences and proper names. They are outnumbered by the lower case letters, which are made for speed.

The reason the lower case letters came about is that the capitals weren’t up to the job. It took centuries for them to emerge.

Well-proportioned italic capitals aren’t as high as the ascenders.

Not many of them have fixed paths. It doesn’t matter much in which order you make the strokes.

They should have the same slant as the lower case letters.